In the Reformed Church far the more numerous of the two bodies each parish has a council of presbyters, consisting of the pastor and lay-members elected by the congregation. Several parishes form a consistorial circumscription, which has a consistorial council consisting of the council of presbyters of the chief town of the circumscription, the pastor and one delegate of the council of presbyters from each parish and other elected members.
There are circumscriptions including Algeria , which are grouped into 21 provincial synods composed of a pastor and lay delegate from each consistory. All the more important questions of church discipline and all decisions regulating the doctrine and practice of the church are dealt with by the synods.
At the head of the whole organization is a General Synod, sitting at Paris. The organization of the Lutheran Church Eglise de la confession d'Augsburg is broadly similar. Each synagogue is served by a rabbi assisted by an officiating minister, and in each consistory is a grand rabbi. At Paris is the central consistory, controlled by the government and presided over by the supreme grand rabbi. Of the population of France some 17,, depend upon agriculture for their livelihood, though only about 6,, are engaged in work on the land.
The cultivable land of the country occupies some , sq. There are besides 12, sq. While wheat and wine constitute the staples of French agriculture , its distinguishing characteristic is the variety of its products. Cereals occupy about one-third of the cultivated area. For the production of wheat , in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.
Rye, on the other hand, one of the least valuable of the cereals, is grown chiefly in the poor agricultural territories of the central plateau and western Brittany. Buckwheat is cultivated mainly in Brittany. Oats and barley are generally cultivated, the former more especially in the Parisian region, the latter in Mayenne and one or two of the neighbouring departments.
Meslin, a mixture of wheat and rye, is produced in the great majority of French departments, but to a marked extent in the basin of the Sarthe. Average Acreage Thousands of Acres. Average Production Thousands of Bushels. Average Yield per Acre Bushels. Wheat 17, 16, , , Forage Crops.
It is grown largely in the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and in those of the Seine basin, the southern limit of its cultivation being roughly a line drawn from Bordeaux to Lyons. The average area occupied by it in the years from to was 1,, acres, the total average production being ,, cwt. Clover, lucerne and sainfoin make up the bulk of artificial pasturage, while vetches, crimson clover and cabbage are the other chief forage crops.
Early potatoes and other vegetables primeurs are largely cultivated in the districts bordering the English Channel. Market-gardening is an important industry in the regions round Paris, Amiens and Angers, as it is round Toulouse, Montauban, Avignon and in southern France generally. The market-gardeners of Paris and its vicinity have a high reputation for skill in the forcing of early vegetables under glass.
Total Yield Tons. Average Yield per Acre Tons. Industrial Plants. Flax and hemp showed a decreasing acreage from onwards. The state controls its cultivation, which is allowed only in a limited number of departments. Production Tons. Sugar beet , 6,, Vineyards see Wine. The great wine-producing regions are:. The department of Gironde 95,, gals. The Charente region, the grapes of which furnish brandy, as do those of Armagnac department of Gers. Acreage of productive vines 4,, Total production in gallons 1,,, Average production in gallons per acre Some of these may be specially mentioned.
The cider apple , which ranks first in importance, is produced in those districts where cider is the habitual drink, that is to say, chiefly in the region north-west of a line drawn from Paris to the mouth of the Loire. The average annual production of cider during the years to was ,, gallons. Dessert apples and pears are grown there and in the country on both banks of the lower Loire, the valley of which abounds in orchards wherein many varieties of fruit flourish and in nursery-gardens.
Silk-worm rearing, which is encouraged by state grants, is carried on in the valleys mentioned and on the Mediterranean coast east of Marseilles. The numbers of growers decreased from , in to , in The decrease in the annual average production of cocoons is shown in the preceding table. Silk Cocoons. Annual average production over quinquennial periods in lb. Snails are reared in some parts of the country as an article of food, those of Burgundy being specially esteemed.
The rich pastoral regions where dairy-farming and the fattening of cattle are carried on with most success, viz. The poorer grazing lands on the upper levels of the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and Vosges, the Landes, the more outlying regions of the central plateau, southern Brittany, Sologne, Berry, Champagne-Pouilleuse, the Crau and the Camargue, these districts being given over for the most part to sheep-raising. West, west-central and eastern France outside these areas, where meadows are predominant and both dairying and fattening are general. Included therein are the dairying and horse-raising district of northern Brittany and the dairying regions of Jura and Savoy.
In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries. Upper Poitou and the zone of south-western France to the north of the Pyrenees are the chief regions for the breeding of mules. Goats are kept in the mountainous regions Auvergne, Provence, Corsica. The following table shows the number of live stock in the country at intervals of ten years since Sheep and Lambs. Other Kinds. Agricultural Organization. The minister is assisted by a superior council of agriculture , the members of which, numbering a hundred, include senators, deputies and prominent agriculturists.
The ministry employs inspectors, whose duty it is to visit the different parts of the country and to report on their respective position and wants. The reports which they furnish help to determine the distribution of the moneys dispensed by the state in the form of subventions to agricultural societies and in many other ways. The chief type of agricultural society is the comice agricole , an association for the discussion of agricultural problems and the organization of provincial shows. There are besides several thousands of local syndicates, engaged in the purchase of materials and sale of produce on the most advantageous terms for their members, credit banks and mutual insurance societies see Co-operation.
Among a variety of premiums awarded by the state are those for the best cultivated estates and for irrigation works, and to the owners of the best stallions and brood-mares. Haras or stallion stables containing in all over horses are established in twenty-two central towns, and annually send stallions, which are at the disposal of private individuals in return for a small fee, to various stations throughout the country.
Other institutions belonging to the state are the national sheep-fold of Rambouillet Seine-et-Oise and the cow-house of Vieux-Pin Orne for the breeding of Durham cows. Four different grades of institution for agricultural instruction are under state direction: 1 farm-schools and schools of apprenticeship in dairying, etc. These number forty-eight, and are intended for sons of farmers of good position; 3 national schools, which are established at Grignon Seine-et-Oise , Rennes and Montpellier, candidates for which must be 17 years of age; 4 the National Agronomic Institute at Paris, which is intended for the training of estate agents, professors, etc.
There are also departmental chairs of agriculture , the holders of which give instruction in training-colleges and elsewhere and advise farmers. The most wooded parts of France are the mountains and plateaus of the east and of the north-east, comprising the pine-forests of the Vosges and Jura including the beautiful Forest of Chaux , the Forest of Haye, the Forest of Ardennes, the Forest of Argonne, etc. The Central Mountains and the Morvan also have considerable belts of wood. In the Parisian region there are the Forests of Fontainebleau 66 sq. The Alps and Pyrenees are in large part deforested, but reafforestation with a view to minimizing the effects of avalanches and sudden floods is continually in progress.
Of the forests of the country approximately one-third belongs to the state, communes and public institutions. The rest belongs to private owners who are, however, subject to certain restrictions. It is administered by a director-general, who has his headquarters at Paris, assisted by three administrators who are charged with the working of the forests, questions of rights and law , finance and plantation works. These officials form the higher grade of the service agents. The department is supplied with officials of the higher class from the National School of Waters and Forests at Nancy, founded in In France, as in other countries, the development of machinery, whether run by steam , water-power or other motive forces, has played a great part in the promotion of industry; the increase in the amount of steam horse-power employed in industrial establishments is, to a certain degree, an index to the activity of the country as regards manufactures.
The appended table shows the progress made since with regard to steam power. Railway and marine locomotives are not included. Total Horse-Power. Total Working Population Industrial Population Percentage engaged in Industry. Nord , , Average Production Thousands of Metric Tons The department of Seine, comprising Paris and its suburbs, which has the largest manufacturing population, is largely occupied with the manufacture of dress, millinery and articles of luxury perfumery, etc.
The typically industrial region of France is the department of Nord, the seat of the woollen industry, but also prominently concerned in other textile industries, in metal working, and in a variety of other manufactures, fuel for which is supplied by its coal-fields. The following sketch of the manufacturing industry of France takes account chiefly of those of its branches which are capable in some degree of localization. Many of the great industries of the country, e. The preceding table shows the average output of the chief coal-groups for the years inclusive. The development of French coal and lignite mining in the 19th century , together with records of prices, which rose considerably at the end of the period, is set forth in the table below:.
Price per Metric Ton Francs. Other Ores. Copper and mispickel are mined only in small quantities. The table below gives the average production of zinc , argentiferous lead, iron-pyrites and other ores during the quinquennial period Production Thousands of Metric Tons. Zinc Salt, etc. For the years , this was 1,, tons, including both rock- and sea-salt. The mineral springs of France are numerous, of varied character and much frequented. Stone-quarrying is specially active in the departments round Paris, Seine-et-Oise employing more persons in this occupation than any other department.
Paving-stone is supplied in large quantities by Seine-et-Oise, and brick-clay is worked chiefly in Nord, Seine and Pas-de-Calais. Cast Iron. Wrought Iron and Steel. Product Thousands of Metric Tons. Taking the number of hands engaged in the industry as a basis of comparison, the most important departments as regards iron and steel working in were:. Chief Centres. Hands engaged in Production of Pig-Iron and Steel. Copper is smelted in Ardennes and Pas-de-Calais. The production of these metals, which are by far the most important after iron and steel, increased steadily during the period , and reached its highest point in , details for which year are given below:.
The woollen industry is carried on most extensively in the department of Nord Roubaix, Tourcoing, Fourmies. The cotton industry is distributed in three principal groups. The silk fabrics of France hold the first place, particularly the more expensive kinds. Flax, Hemp, Jute, etc. Hosiery , the manufacture of which employs 55, hands, has its chief centre in Aube Troyes. The increase in production in the last twenty years of the 19th century is indicated in the following table: -.
The two last classes number over , , but the quantity of alcohol distilled by them is small. Beetroot, molasses and grain are the chief sources of spirit. Aisne, Pas-de-Calais and Somme rank next to Nord. Glass is manufactured in the departments of Nord Aniche, etc. That of oil, candles and soap has its chief centre at Marseilles. Brewing and malting are localized chiefly in Nord. Baking , Milling 99, Charcuterie 39, Other alimentary industries , Alimentary industries: total , , Gas-works 26, Tobacco factories 16, Oil-works 10, Other "chemical"  industries 58, Chemical industries: total , 49, Rubber factories 9, 25, Paper factories 61, Typographic and lithographic printing 76, Other branches of book production 23, Book production: total 99, 38, Spinning and weaving , 1,, Clothing, millinery and making up of 1,, , fabrics generally.
Basket work, straw goods, feathers 39, Leather and skin , , Joinery , Builder's carpentering 94, Wheelwright's work 82, Cooperage 46, Wooden shoes 52, Other wood industries , Wood industries: total , , Metallurgy and metal working , , Goldsmiths' and jewellers' work 35, 55, Stone-working 56, 12, Construction, building, decorating , , Glass manufacture 43, Tiles 29, Bricks 17, Other kiln industries 45, Kiln industries: total , , Some individuals were engaged in unclassified industries.
The Dogger Bank is frequented by numbers of French fishing-boats. Besides the above, Boulogne, the most important fishing port in the country, Calais, Dieppe, Concarneau, Douarnenez, Les Sables d'Olonne, La Rochelle, Marennes and Arcachon are leading ports for the herring, sardine, mackerel and other coast-fisheries of the ocean, while Cette, Agde and other Mediterranean ports are engaged in the tunny and anchovy fisheries.
Sardine preserving is an important industry at Nantes and other places on the west coast. In the number of men employed in the home fisheries was , and the number of vessels 25, tonnage , ; in the deep-sea fisheries 10, men and vessels tonnage 51, were employed. The urban and rural district roads, covering a much greater mileage and classed as la petite voirie , are maintained chiefly by the communes under the supervision of the Minister of the Interior.
They are divided into two classes. Water traffic, which is chiefly in heavy merchandise, as coal, building materials, and agriculture and food produce, more than doubled in volume between and Total navigated Length. First Class Navigability. The contract for building the railway was put in the hands of Thomas Brassey; English navvies were largely employed on the work, and a number of English engine-drivers were employed when traffic was begun in A law passed in laid the foundation of the plan under which the railways have since been developed, and mapped out nine main lines, running from Paris to the frontiers and from the Mediterranean to the Rhine and to the Atlantic coast.
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in , when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
Each of these companies was allotted a definite Sphere of influence, and was granted a concession for ninety-nine years from its date of formation, the concessions thus terminating at various dates between and In return for the privileges granted them the companies undertook the construction out of their own unaided resources of m. This measure proved successful and the projected lines were completed. But demands for more lines were constantly arising, and the existing companies, in view of their financial position, were disinclined to undertake their construction.
The government therefore found itself obliged to inaugurate a system of direct subventions, not only to the old large companies, but also to new small ones, to encourage the development of branch and local lines, and local authorities were also empowered to contribute a portion of the required capital. The result came to be that many small lines were begun by companies that had not the means to complete them, and again the state had to come to the rescue. Then there was a change in the financial situation, and it became difficult to find the money required.
In these circumstances the conventions of were concluded, and the great companies partially relieved the government of its obligations by agreeing to contribute a certain proportion of the cost of the new lines and to provide the rolling stock for working them. In former cases when the railways had had recourse to state aid, it was the state whose contributions were fixed, while the railways were left to find the residue; but on this occasion the position was reversed. The state further guaranteed a minimum rate of interest on the capital invested, and this guarantee, which by the convention of had applied to "new" lines only, was now extended to cover both "old" and "new" lines, the receipts and expenditure from both kinds being lumped together.
As before, the sums paid out in respect of guaranteed dividend were to be regarded as advances which were to be paid back to the state out of the profits made, when these permitted, and when the advances were wiped out, the profits, after payment of a certain dividend, were to be divided between the state and the railway, two-thirds going to the former and one-third to the latter.
All the companies, except the Nord, have at one time or another had to take advantage of the guarantee, and the fact that the Ouest had been one of the most persistent and heavy borrowers in this respect was one of the reasons that induced the government to take it over as from the 1st of January The Nord, which serves the rich mining, industrial and farming districts of Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Aisne and Somme, connecting with the Belgian railways at several points.
The Ouest-Etat, a combination of the West and state systems. The former traversed Normandy in every direction and connected Paris with the towns of Brittany. The state railways served a large portion of western France, their chief lines being from Nantes via La Rochelle to Bordeaux, and from Bordeaux via Saintes, Niort and Saumur to Chartres.
From Bordeaux there is also a direct line to Bayonne and Irun for Madrid , and at the other end of the Pyrenees a line leads from Narbonne to Perpignan and Barcelona. The following table, referring to lines "of general interest," indicates the development of railways after Passengers carried 's Goods carried Metric Tons 18, 42, 23, , 75, 20, 46, 24, 41, 92, 22, 50, 27, , , 23, 60, 32, , , 24, 60, 31, , , While raising the taxes both on agricultural products and manufactured goods, this law introduced, between France and all the powers trading with her, relations different from those in the past.
It left the government free either to apply to foreign countries the general tariff or to enter into negotiations with them for the application, under certain conditions, of a minimum tariff. This system, however, which is opposed by a powerful party, has at various times undergone modifications. On the one hand it became necessary, in face of an inadequate harvest, to suspend in the application of the law on the import of corn.
On the other hand, in order to check the decline of exports and neutralize the harmful effects of a prolonged customs war, a commercial treaty was in concluded with Switzerland , carrying with it a reduction, in respect of certain articles, of the imposts which had been fixed by the law of An accord was likewise in effected with Italy , which since had been in a state of economic rupture with France, and in July an accord was concluded with the United States of America. Almost all other countries, moreover, share in the benefit of the minimum tariff, and profit by the modifications it may successively undergo.
General Special Imports. Per cent of Total Value. Articles of Food - 58, Being in the main a self-supporting country France carries on most of her trade within her own borders, and ranks below Great Britain, Germany and the United States in volume of exterior trade. The latter is subdivided into general commerce, which includes all goods entering or leaving the country, and special commerce which includes imports for home use and exports of home produce. The above table shows the developments of French trade during the years from to by means of quinquennial averages.
A permanent body the commission permanente des valeurs fixes the average prices of the articles in the customs list; this value is estimated at the end of the year in accordance with the variations that have taken place and is applied provisionally to the following year. Amongst imports raw materials wool, cotton and silk, coal, oil-seeds, timber, etc. Amongst exports manufactured goods silk, cotton and woollen goods, fancy wares, apparel, etc. Divided into these classes the imports and exports special trade for quinquennial periods from to averaged as shown in the preceding table.
The decline both in imports and in exports of articles of food, which is the most noteworthy fact exhibited in the preceding table, was due to the almost prohibitive tax in the Customs Law of , upon agricultural products. The average value of the principal articles of import and export special trade over quinquennial periods following is shown in the two tables below. Coal, coke, etc 7, 9, 10, Coffee 6, 4, 3, Cotton, raw 7, 7, 11, Flax 2, 2, 3, Fruit and seeds oleaginous 7, 6, 8, Hides and skins, raw 6, 5, 6, Machinery 2, 3, 4, Silk, raw 9, 10, 11, Timber 6, 6, 6, Wheat 10, 5, 1, Wine 9, 10, 5, Wool, raw 13, 16, 16, Apparel 4, 4, 5, Brandy and other spirits 2, 1, 1, Butter 2, 2, 2, Cotton manufactures 4, 5, 7, Haberdashery  5, 6, 6, Hides, raw 2, 3, 4, Hides, tanned or curried 4, 4, 4, Iron and steel, manufactures of.
The following were the countries sending the largest quantities of goods special trade to France during the same periods as in previous table. Germany 13, 13, 17, Belgium 15, 13, 13, United Kingdom 20, 22, 22, Spain 10, 10, 6,  United States 15, 18, 19, Argentine Republic 7, 10, 10, The following are the principal countries receiving the exports of France special trade , with values for the same periods.
Germany 13, 16, 21, Belgium 19, 22, 24, United Kingdom 39, 45, 49, United States 9, 9, 10, Algeria 7, 9, 11, The trade of France was divided between foreign countries and her colonies in the following proportions imports and exports combined. General Trade. Special Trade. Foreign Countries. The respective shares of the leading customs in the trade of the country is approximately shown in the following table, which gives the value of their exports and imports general trade in in millions sterling. In the same year the other chief customs in order of importance were Tourcoing, Jeumont, Cette, St Nazaire and Avricourt.
The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives d'arts et manufactures , the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing. They are established in the chief towns, and their principal function is to advise the government on measures for improving and facilitating commerce and industry within their circumscription.
The increase of the French mercantile marine which is fifth in importance in the world over the same period is traced in the following table. Vessels of 2 net tons and upwards are enumerated. Number of Vessels. At the beginning of the total was 17, tonnage, 1,, ; of these 13, tonnage, 81, were vessels of less than 20 tons, while tonnage, 1,, were over tons. The increase in the tonnage of sailing vessels, which in other countries tends to decline, was due to the bounties voted by parliament to its merchant sailing fleet with the view of increasing the number of skilled seamen.
The prosperity of the French shipping trade is hampered by the costliness of shipbuilding and by the scarcity of outward-bound cargo. Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria , etc. Despite these monopolies, three-fourths of the shipping in French ports is foreign, and France is without shipping companies comparable in importance to those of other great maritime nations.
Central Government. Alterations or modifications of the constitution can only be effected by the National Assembly, consisting of both chambers sitting together ad hoc. The legislative power resides in these two chambers - the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies; the executive is vested in the president of the republic and the ministers. The members of both chambers owe their election to universal suffrage; but the Senate is not elected directly by the people and the Chamber of Deputies is. The Chamber of Deputies, consisting of members, is elected by the scrutin d'arrondissement each elector voting for one deputy for a term of four years, the conditions of election being as follows: Each arrondissement sends one deputy if its population does not exceed ,, and an additional deputy for every additional , inhabitants or fraction of that number.
Every citizen of twenty-one years of age, unless subject to some legal disability, such as actual engagement in military service, bankruptcy or condemnation to certain punishments, has a vote, provided that he can prove a residence of six months' duration in any one town or commune. A deputy must be a French citizen, not under twenty-five years old. Each candidate must make, at least five days before the elections, a declaration setting forth in what constituency he intends to stand.
He may only stand for one, and all votes given for him in any other than that specified in the declaration are void. To secure election a candidate must at the first voting poll an absolute majority and a number of votes equal to one-fourth of the number of electors. If a second poll is necessary a relative majority is sufficient. The Senate see below, Law and Institutions is composed of members who must be French citizens at least forty years of age.
They are elected by the " scrutin de liste " for a period of nine years, and one-third of the body retires every three years. The department which is to elect a senator when a vacancy occurs is settled by lot. No member of a family that has reigned in France is eligible for either chamber. Bills may be proposed either by ministers in the name of the president of the republic , or by private members, and may be initiated in either chamber, but money-bills must be submitted in the first place to the Chamber of Deputies. Either house may pass a vote of no confidence in the government, and in practice the government resigns in face of the passing of such a vote by the deputies, but not if it is passed by the Senate only.
The chambers usually assemble in January each year, and the ordinary session lasts not less than five months; usually it continues till July. There is an extraordinary session from October till Christmas. The president see below, Law and Institutions is elected for seven years, by a majority of votes, by the Senate and Chamber of Deputies sitting together as the National Assembly. Any French citizen may be chosen president, no fixed age being required. The only exception to this rule is that no member of a royal family which has once reigned in France can be elected.
Both the chambers are summoned by the president, who has the power of dissolving the Chamber of Deputies with the assent of the Senate. When a change of Government occurs the president chooses a prominent parliamentarian as premier and president of the council. This personage, who himself holds a portfolio, nominates the other ministers, his choice being subject to the ratification of the chief of the state. The ministerial council conseil des ministres is presided over by the president of the republic; less formal meetings conseils de cabinet under the presidency of the premier, or even of some other minister, are also held.
The ministers, whether members of parliament or not, have the right to sit in both chambers and can address the house whenever they choose, though a minister may only vote in the chamber of which he happens to be a member. There are twelve ministries  comprising those of justice; finance; war; the interior; marine; colonies; public instruction and fine arts; foreign affairs; commerce and industry; agriculture ; public works; and labour and public thrift.
Individual ministers are responsible for all acts done in connexion with their own departments, and the body of ministers collectively is responsible for the general policy of the government. It is divided for despatch of business into four sections, each of which corresponds to a group of two or three ministerial departments, and is composed of 1 32 councillors " en service ordinaire " comprising a vice-president and sectional presidents , and 19 councillors " en service extraordinaire ," i.
The theory of " droit administratif " lays down the principle that an agent of the government cannot be prosecuted or sued for acts relating to his administrative functions before the ordinary tribunals. Consequently there is a special system of administrative jurisdiction for the trial of " le contentieux administratif " or disputes in which the administration is concerned. The council of state is the highest administrative tribunal, and includes a special " Section du contentieux " to deal with judicial work of this nature. Local Government. These departments are subdivided into arrondissements, cantons and 36, communes.
Capital Towns. Ancient Provinces. Aisne Laon Ile-de-France; Picardie. Allier Moulins Bourbonnais. Aube Troyes Champagne; Bourgogne. Our best-known proverb on the subject of climate and health is : " In April, do not remove one thread. In May, do as you please. En Mai, fais ce qu'tl te platt. A more serious mistake about us could not very well be made. It is quite true that very often the Frenchman is deeply attach- ed to his fields and " famille" , and is fond of social life; but what better proof could be given of his ability as a colonist than the fact that in spite of this close affection for his home, he has built up no less than three successive colonial empires since the xivth century?
We are so far indeed from lacking individual resource as colonists, that our colonization has been almost enti- rely, save in recent times, the work of individuals. Until about 40 years ago, colonies were hardly ever a national affair with us ; the mother-country generally neglected her adventurous sons ; their activity and obstinacy forced over-sea possessions upon her ; she lost them in European wars with a fairly light heart.
In the xvith century, our Kings appreciated only the Colonies that produced gold ; in the xviith and xviiith, the spices of the West Indies ranked far ahead of the wheat lands of Canada. Voltaire called North America " a few acres of snow, " and " could have wished Canada at the bottom of the sea.
We never took much interest as a nation in things Egyptian; even the Suez Canal left us indifferent, etc With this official ignorance or indifference, compare the 65, " individual " French peasants left behind in Canada - 46 - COLONIES in ; they are a million and a half to-day, and have proved excellent colonists; they have never depended on " fonction- narisme ".
The case of England is almost the reverse ; there the nation made colonization her business as early as in the days of Eliza- beth, spent money and blood on it lavishly, made emigration easy, and at times almost compulsory. Not that the British have ever lacked energetic individuals who also had to force colonies on the Little Englanders ; but on the whole the State understood and led. Colonies are a necessity to England as a nation; to us as a nation they are merely useful; sometimes indeed they were burdensome : the defence of our soil was as much as we could manage.
And so it has happened that the individual French traveller or colonist opened up Canada and India, which were secured thereafter by the national policy of England.
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It has been said that the British Empire was to a great extent " a present of the French " ; the statement, far from inviting ill-feeling on either side, would be of little interest to-day, if the amount of obvious truth which it contains did not establish beyond doubt, we think, that the Frenchman is not a bom " fonctionnaire ", incapable of individual enterprise. We occupied Guinea as early as ; the Canaries in , Brazil in , Canada in , Guiana in , Madagascar in , etc.
After the Seven Years' War, our defeat at Rosbach by Frederic of Prussia in , the death of Montcalm at Quebec in , and the taking of Pondicherry in , we had to give Louisiana to Spain, and all the rest of our possessions in- cluding Canada, India, Senegal except Pondicherry and Chander- nagore, to England Treaty of Paris, Thus ended our first Empire.
We gradually regained most of our old Colonies, abolished slavery in , conquered Egypt in But Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States, and Thus much for our second Empire. By , we possessed over seas more than one million square kilom. To-day, our third Empire is the second in importance in the world ; its area is over 11 million sq.
Tunisia Morocco Sahara 5. Madagascar Somalee Coast Total Africa. India Indo-China Total Asia Tahiti Group 4. Total South Seas. Martinique Guiana Total America. North Africa is only miles from our coast, a 24 hours' crossing. Its total trade has grown from million francs in to more than 1. Wine, grain, vegetables, sheep, are its main productions. Algeria has proved an invaluable school to our soldiers and administrators ; it gradually led us to become an African power.
General description of the French colonial contingent which has taken part in the European war. They do not include those troops — such as the " Infanterie Coloniale " or the Foreign Legion — which were garrisoned in the Colonies when the war began, but had all been recruited in Europe No official figures have been issued as regards the contmgent supplied by the French colonists. The last census, however, shows that there are , French- men in Algeria, 46, in Tunis, and 36, in Morocco, to which must be added 70, Algerian Jews who are all French citizens This makes an aggregate of over , people, all liable to conscription We are probably under the truth inputting the whole properly French contingent most of whom serve as Zouaves at about 60, On the other hand, Morocco, which is still half unconquered, has supplied a few thousand native troops.
Boussenot, by the middle of This contingent to-day is at least , men. These excellent troops have fought with distinction on the Somme and around Verdun, as well as in Gallipoli, or in Salonica The " Jour- nal officiel " of Fr. Africa states that the number of Senegalese raised for the European War reached in the respectable figure of , men. Other equally official documents show that, if one adds the various coloured contingents supplied by Indo-China, Madagascar, and the West Indies, the total figure reached in 6 was well above another , men.
It would not be surprising to hear that Greater France has supplied the mother-country with another half million men before the war is over. Neither have I taken into account the coloured forces which fought in Togoland and the Cameroons or the native labour imported into France from the Colonies What about the future? The Fretich Colonies' effort Bloud, o fi. See also : Geographical outline. The most famous of those national institutions is the ' ' Comedie Frangaise " in Paris, also called "la Maison de Molitre", " le Theatre Franfais" , or simply : " le Frangais".
It occupied se- veral sites , , but enjoyed an unrivalled repu- tation and a happy fruitful existence until the Revolution brought about a conflict be- tween the old conservative house and a young com- petitor which called itself " Theatre de la Republique " ; — upon which the Comedie assumed the name of " Thea- tre de la Nation ". The Convention in disestablished all theatres ; whereupon the " Comedie " became more imprudently royalist than ever. The whole company were arrested in , some of them being released on condition they joined the rival house. When the rest were released in their turn on the 9th Thermidor the day when the rule of Robespierre came to an end , they revived the old " Comidie ", which soon outshone its young opponent, because of its supe- rior technique, especially in comedy.
But, after a number of unfortunate and intricate transactions, private enterprise, by favouring competition rather than co-opera- tion, dispersed the original arti. At last, the Government took the matter in hand, and by regulations dated re-organized the original company and established them in the present house near the "Palais-Royal" built by Louis, in ; destroyed by fire, in ; re-built the same - 51 - Voltaire by Houdon, in the lobby of the Comed. See Literature, and Sculpture.
Napoleon, in , framed for them a more precise constitution, and then another, still in force to-day, which he signed at Moscow in The house is under the presidency and administration of a State official, the " Administrateur General " ; the artists have an important share in the artistic management, but admissions and dismissals are in the hands of the Government " Ministre de V Instruction Publique et des Beaux-Arts ".
Promotion is given partly by vote, partly for long service. All members are entitled to a pension upon retiring from active service, like other State officials. The " Comedie Francaise " is the best theatre in the world ; its standard is very high, as it does not depend on one or two " stars ", but on the taste of cultured Frenchmen past and present, and on the cumulative teachings of all our best actors since Louis XTV.
No one can say that he really understands our classical drama until he has heard the artists of the " Comedie ". They teach more about Corneille and Racine than most masters or critics could do ; because the " Comedie " maintains the living atmosphere in which the plays came to life, and without which they can appeal to the emotions but indirectly and imperfectly. Another service rendered to us by the " Comedie " is that of preserving a standard of French pronunciation ; on that point it co-operates with the "Academic ' in keeping our language pure.
The "Opera", as a national company, is still older than the " Comedie ' ; it was founded in The " Opera-Comique " was founded about and re- organized in I As a result of those subsidies, the prices of the seats in all those houses are very moderate. Full and accurate statistics are not available. Our foreign trade was steadily growing before the war. The high protective tariffs of had made it decline at first, from g.
Coffee from Brazil and our own Colonies to millions ; grain from U. Mostly machinery from U. Wool from Australia, Argentina; cotton from U. Our purchases in grain vary a good deal ; they reached million francs in ; they were 4 times as high in We pay for wool annually over million francs ; for cotton and silk, over ; for coal, over ; for wood, Wines to U.
Silks of Lyons, " artidei de Paris", millinery, motor-cars, etc. We sell annually over million francs of silks, cotton goodSj millinery, etc. Our best customer by far is U. French Imports and Exports in million francs , in Imports Exports Totals United Kingdom. Germany 8. French trade in 4. Levasseur, Histoire du commerce de la France Rons, seau, The range and elaborateness of our cooking are due to several factors, natural or political.
One is the variety of climates, which originated three great schools of cooking : the " butter school ", which rules the N.
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The second school uses olive-oil, and is partial to saffron, tomatoes, garlic, pepper and cloves, onions and vinegar ; it flourishes in the S. The S. Thus do truffles of Perigord S. See : Agriculture and Situation. Another factor is periodic poverty, the recurrence of wars and famines, which forced the people to exert themselves to the utmost in the discovery of new cheap foods.
Frogs cost nothing, and are plentiful ; they do not look particularly inviting or nutritious ; yet they could never jump if their legs were not fairly muscular ; throw away the rest of their bodies if you like, but find some use for that flesh. So hunger spoke. Our peasantry has found at least three methods of preparing frogs ; they maybe stewed and served with milk sauce, or fried, or fried inside pastry. The taste is as delicate as that of fish or chicken. In the same way he has utilized the snails that live on the vines of Burgundy. Those big fat snails are starved for a couple of days, so as to make them internally irreproachable; they are then washed, boiled, stuffed with bread, butter, and herbs, baked in an oven, and served hot.
Thus has the vine been rid of its parasites, and provided food as well as drink Lastly, the refinement of the Court contributed much to the development of cooking as a fine art. Our epicures in the xviiith century claimed that they could tell on which leg a pheas- ant had been in the habit of sleeping, merely from the greater firmness of the flesh. One century before that, when our chefs had still a great deal to learn, food was regarded as so important that the steward of the Prince of Conde, Vatel, fell on his sword, like a true knight, because the fish "la maree " had not arrived in time for a dinner at which Louis XIV was to be present!
Thus is truth stranger than fiction. The following description of a little friendly dinner, offered by Louis XIV to the Pope's Legate, will perhaps make it appear less unlikely. The silver-chest at the end, on the King's side. The first course, of " potages " , being on the table it consisted of ten large dishes and fourteen plates the King came in, preceded by ten house-stewards and the chief house-steward ; the Legate came in on his left.
When he had reached the top of the table, the Duke of Enghien, as great master of the ceremonies, offered him the napkin, while M. The Legate having then walked to his?
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They stood in that order oppo- site the King, and set the dishes before him on the table after the chief carver had tasted them. The Legate was served by Compt- roller Parfait, who filled his glass, and presented to him the dishes passed by another Parfait and by young Chamoy. Behind the chair of the King stood M. Abbe Coislin, grand Almoner, and at the end of the table, the house-stewards. At every course, the stewards went out for the meat, and came back preceded by the usher of the hall, the stewards two and two, staff in hand, the chief steward coming last.
The dishes and plates were brought in and removed by the King's footmen. There were four courses, and then fruit, this last consisting of four pyramids of twenty-four plates of porcelain of all kinds of fruit, and fourteen plates of " citronnades " and other courses. The King drank only twice, from the hand of his chief cup-bearer ; the Legate four times, from the hand of Comptroller Parfait.
Dinner over, the King rose, and at the same time the Legate, who walked up to him ; thereupon the Duke of Enghien E resented the napkin to the King, and the chief steward to the egate. The Queens satin the gallery during the ceremony; the violins, trumpets and cymbals were in the hall. A traveller in India, where the cooking is very poor as a rule, was surprised at the quality of certain dishes at his hotel ; he asked what sort of man the cook might be.
He was told that he was an Indian who had worked as stoker on one of the " Messageries " steamers, and must have taken a few lessons from the chef at odd moments. That was indeed 'peaceful penetration". A few years ago, two Russian peasants were wandering about Odessa, when one of them suggested that they ought to try to get a " constitution " at some restaurant ; because, he explained to his friend, the French have constitutions, and like them ; in fact, they simply dote on them ; and the French being such grand cooks. Fortunately, one of the servants was intelligent, and had spent some time in France ; he quickly prepared and brought some steak with a sauce that the moujicks had never tasted, and which fully confirmed them in their respect for French civilization.
When they went home, and told their friends of this dish, the unfortu- nate inn-keepers of the nearest market-town, who failed to pro- vide the magic food, were severely dealt with by the irate consti- tutionalists. Some reader will think that " this may be all very fine, but he has never found a decent piece of meat in any French restau- rant. However, if the reader will try a really good place, and ask for a " Chateau- briand ", he will be given a steak that may reconcile him to the vanity of our ways.
Snail farms. As many as , " first quality " snails, the price ol which in normal times averages 7 s. They need be fed only once a day, preferably in the evening, and though extremely voracious, are by no means fastidious. After a fall of rain, which seems to sharpen their appetite, a, bed of , snails will soon demolish a barrow load of cabbages.
They are fed not only on greenstufis, but on wine dregs, or bran soaked in wine, a diet which is supposed to impart a special flavour. Spenser on snails — Three centuries ago, snails were more popular in England than they are now. In " The Faerie Queene " Spenser gives a recipe for their preparation : With our sharp weapons we shal thee fray. And take the castill that thou lyest in; We shal thee flay out of thy foule skin, And in a dish,' with onyons and peper.
We shal thee dress with strong vynegare. Harrison G. C , Allied Cooking.
69023 - Blacé
Long ser- vice, in the case of officers, and very long service about 30 years , in the case of N. A private or N. At the same time civilians receive it almost automatically when they fill certain posts. On the whole the Legion has become far more accessible than was meant by its founder ; partly for want of other appropriate decorations.
Napoleon did not intend the order to include more than 6, members. Napoleon's officers being always in the field, they could not very well look after their children ; Napoleon founded special schools for the daughters of the most distinguished of them : his " legiot,- fiaires ", at Saint-Denis, Ecouen, and Les Loges all N. The sons were bursars in his " lycees " and cadet-schools.
The schools for legionnaires' daughters have survived to this day. Purely military is the " Medaille Militaire " , the ribbon of which is yellow with green edges. A peculiarity of its bestowal is that an officer who has reached the highest rank in the Legion may receive it on very rare occasions. Marshal Jofire received it after the Marne. While there are grades in the Legion, all " medailles " are equals.
The Legion, when given to a military man, and the " Medaille " entitle the recipient to a pension. Moderate distiiiction, or long service, in the cause of literature, the fine arts, or education, entitle thousands to a violet decoration; some are " officiers d'acadimie " this has nothing to do with the "Academic Franfaise " ; others rank higher as " officiers de I' Instruction publique ". The former wear a ribbon, the latter a " rosette ". The " palms " attached to the ribbon or rosette are only worn on great occasions. No pensions are attached.
Good work in the interests of agriculture is rewarded by the " Ordre du Merita agricole " , a green ribbon with red edges. This was instituted by the Third present Republic, and does not carry a pension. This is intermediate between the " Medaille militaire " and the comme- morative medals given to all members of an expedition. With the " Medaille " or the "Legion" given for conspicuous bravery, the " Croix de Guerre " is awarded as well. A green ribbon with black stripes is worn by those who took part in the war of The " Medaille Coloniale " blue and white ribbon and special commemorative medals, distinguish those who fought in Madagascar, Morocco, etc.
The " fourragere " forage cord, a rope used for tieing hay was worn by soldiers as an ornament several generations ago. It is now a collective decoration ; a unit that has been cited three times in Orders receives the green and red fourragere collective "Croix de Guerre " ; 5 times, a green and yellow one collective Military Medal ; 6 times, a blood-red one collective Legion of Honour.
Familiar insignia. Every stripe on the right arm between elbow and shoulder , means a wound received. One stripe on the left arm means one year at the front ; the second, third, etc. For well over years, we have had " national styles ", whose influence extended from Spain to Russia, and permeated even the tradition of our village joiners. The standard was high, and national : it was set by the Court and by Paris.
At the same time, we possess the most skilled workmen in Europe, and a large proportion of our people could afford to pay for good work, so that production, however extensive, seldom fell below a fairly high grade. We can give only a few essentials on this interesting subject; a good deal might be said about our jewellers, goldsmiths, chasers, glass-founders, lace-workers, etc. In the xith century, several monasteries wove woollen hangings.
Hotel of the Duke of Lauzun. The Sultan of Constantinople bought Arras tapestries representing scenes from the " Romance of the Rose " and " Arras " became a common noun, both in England and in Italy arrazo. In the xvith, Brussels took the lead ; there the Pope ordered tapestries for the churches of Rome ; the Flemings reproduced the cartoons of Raphael. Chateau of Champs. After the triumph of Beauvais under Oudry in the xviiith century, and the decUne of our tapestry in the xixth, the Third RepubUc has done its best for the Gobehns, where private orders can now be carried out, whilst the State and Louis XVI style.
Beauvais is still active and, like Aubusson, is State property. Silk tapestries are a speciality of Lyons.
It was only in the xivth century that the men who had decorated the cathedrals applied their skill as carvers to the making of furniture. The dresser of the French home, a stout structure of plain native oak, intended for the plate s and ewers of the household, was succeeded by the inlaid caoine- , as ornate as a fa9ade of the Renaissance, and containing jewels and trinkets. Boulle did not belong to the Gobelins ; he was a perfectly original, and yet national artist, whose family had lived and worked in the palace of the Louvre for three gene- rations. The Louis XIV style is severe, of large size, and fond of sober symmetrical curves.
The bed-chamber of Empress Josephine at the Malmaison, near Paris. Their art, of course, has bene- fited by the example of William Morris and his disciples. But those men have worked only for the very few, and their influence has not sunk deep. Some distinguished connoisseurs persist in enriching their household museums, while the vast majority, true to the modern principle of the " showy, cheap, and nasty '', are content with sham Louis XVI, and spurious " modern- style " , the only styles that suit the steam-plane.
We had excellent pottery before Roman times, but the local style disappeared during Roman occupation. In the xith century, our ceramists had begun to substitute tiled pavements for the mosaics of previous builders. From to we owed our ceramics partly to native artists, partly to Italians whom our kings established by the Loire. Those Italians understood glazing and enamelling, but kept their secrets jealously ; B. Palissy, a Huguenot who died in the Bastille in , spent all hiss means on the re-discovery of those processes.
Within his life-time, Beauvais was famous for its blue, green, and brown stone vases, and Rouen for its gourds and tiles. In the xviith century, our ceramics reached their full development, in a manner quite different from furniture and tapestry : our earthenware masters kept away from the Gobelins, so that their art preserved great variety. Rouen held the first rank at one time ; Nevers Centre , under Italian guidance at first, became the supplier of the Royal Household; Moustiers extreme S. But, as early as , Claude Reverend claimed to have discov- ered the secret of Eastern porcelain.
Rouen and Orleans began to work in china almost at once, amidst general indifference. Several other firms were soon founded in the neigh- bourhood of Paris. One at Sevres, in , was patronized by Louis XV, and gradually became a National institution, which it has remained to this day. Varl de reconnaitre les styles Garnier, 5 fr. See also : Arts.
The " chef-lieu " is not always the most important town, but the most central ; e. Rheims is only a " sous-prefecture. La on. La Rochelle. Le Puy. Le Mans. La Roche-sur-Yon. Algeria includes the three " departements " of : Alger, Or an, Constantine. The English have evolved the race-horse, the short-horn, etc. There is no better horse for light draught than the " perche- ron" West ; it has been so much appreciated in America that few of the breed are left us now.
Our Horses vary with regions and climates, ranging from the huge heavy brewer's horse of Boulogne to the Corsican pony. As a rule, French horses are, like their masters, frugal, hardy, and stronger than their looks. The breeds naturally produced in Brittany, Ardennes, Lorraine, Poitou, Auvergne, are noted for their endurance. A very good cross is the " Anglo-Normand. Our Dogs vary in size from the tall mountain dogs of Mount Saint-Bernard Alps and of the Pyrenees, to the Ardennes " basset " similar to the German terrier.
Our best hounds are the " chiens-courants " oi Normandy, Artois, Saintonge West , and the " braque " of Saint- Germain. The " dogue de Bordeaux " is a huge unamiable guardian. The famous French poodle we ourselves call " caniche " ; we regard it as the most intelligent of dogs.
The English bull-dog has had a French offspring : the " bouledogue frangais ". Our best sheep-dogs are those of Brie and Beauce. French Cattle belongs to nine main stocks, branching into scores of varieties. The tallest variety is the Flemish, the smallest are the Breton a. The best milker is ihe" Nor- mande " , at least in Normandy : Normande cows, when imported into Gascony S. The Donkey is a great favourite with us ; it is the horse of the poor, and does extremely well in the drier regions of France. A large variety is much appreciated by the Mule-breeders of Poitou.
The ass, being very hardy and particular at the same time, is never consumptive, and the milk of the she-ass is often prescribed to consumptive patients by our doctors. The Goat is to the cow what the ass is to the horse. We have goats mostly in the South. Every woman will have one or two ; the village shepherd collects them all in the morning, on his way to the fields, and returns them at night. The sheep of Champagne, Berri, Cevennes, Gascony, are the best known. To that same district belong our finest Fowls.
Our best breeds of hens, hardly surpassed anywhere, are those of Houdan, Fave- rolles. Our Pigeons and Rabbits call for no other remark than this: our farmers do not breed them for prize-shows, or "to amuse the chil- dren ". Pigeons and small green peas are a favourite dish of ours. Rabbits, cooked with wine, are excellent. The French peasant seldom deals with a butcher, except to sell him cattle ; a little pork every day, and a rabbit now and then, are quite enough for him.
A rabbit, on the market, will fetch from 3 to 6 francs. The skin is carefully turned inside out, and stuffed with straw ; one day the specialist calls and buys it for a few pence. The Turkey we call "dindon" "poulet d' I nde" , because it came to us from the "West Indies". It prospers exceedingly in our S. The Goose of Toulouse is almost as well-known in England as our turkey.
Our epicures particulary appreciate the guinea-hen, the hen of Madagascar, the barbary-duck, and the ducks from the Rouen district. We breed ostriches at Nice, and Algiers. France Guided does not mean led. It should be pointed out that we draw as a rule a fine distinc- tion between love and marriage. Love we regard more or less as a personal matter and an accident, something incalculable which happens to yourself only, of which the person loved may even know nothing ; whereas marriage is a social and calculable neces- sity.
Love your wife, or jour husband, by all means, but the happiness of both, and that of your children and parents will be all the greater, in the long run, if you have conformed to certain social conventions and sensible rules of business and conduct. Do not depend on love exclusively, says French wisdom : for it may go as it came ; marriage being a thing that must endure, its harmony must be made to depend on reliable factors, such as the " family constitutions ", social rank, tastes and habits, and The young people are apt to ignore those rules, but such is the creed of their elders, and French marriage concerns the elders al- most as much as the principals.
If a man is an orphan, he must get the permission of his grandparents before he can marry Say a young man has been attracted by some girl, and thinks she might make a good wife ; he tells his parfents about it. The latter make full enquiry, if necessary, then call on the girl's parents, and discuss things with them. The young people as a rule merely find one another, and concern themselves only with the senti- mental aspects of the situation; the dutiful parents arrange their future life for them ; so can Romeo and Juliet be poetical to their hearts' content, — the prose passages in the play do not concern them.
This arrangement works better, for a whole nation, than sporadic Eugenic societies. Sometimes the girl's parents, or the man's, return to their offspring unsatisfactory information about the prospective parents-in-law. Conflicts may and do ensue, with solutions ranging from final compliance to elopement or suicide, accord- ing to temperaments, education, and seasons Be it borne in mind, however, that in the vast majority of cases, family discipline, like others, has declined, and the parents seldom use the power that the law still grants them.
Two other points should be remembered. Equality is a strong element in the Gallic temperament. We do not see why, if the man has an income, the wife should not have one ; a French father likes to ensure his daughter's independence to some extent, even when she leaves him. Again, French marriage being essen- tially a family affair, a French father will take care that his grand- children are provided for ; he wiU, in some cases, settle on his - 68 - DRINKS daughter and her children to come, a capital which the husband can under no circumstances break into.
Many husbands profit very little, if at all, by the " dot " of their wives. There must be something in that institution which already existed amongst us before Roman times, for there are practically no spinsters in France, and no suffragettes. Wine costs anything between 4 centimes and 40 francs a bottle ; now and then, in plentiful years, the newspaper-advertisements offer one barrel of wine sent by rail free of charge, to any person sending two empty wine-barrels to the producer. Nice distinctions are drawn, rightly it seems, between red wine and white. White is supposed to make a man cheery and nimble, to act favourably on the brain, nerves, and kidneys.
It is a wine for the early morning, for summer, for sportsmen, etc. Soldiers on a march are strongly advised by their chiefs not to drink any red wine, or spirits which would " cut off their legs " , but white wine exclusively. Red is like rich food, apt to make a man unfit for immediate exertion ; the same labourer who cannot do without his quart of red at every meal a common allowance in the working-class , will generally avoid red wine during working hours. White seldom falls below a certain grade of quality ; the cheaper white wines always sell a little higher than the cheaper reds.
White wine is made from black grapes as a rule ; it is the case with champagne. A surprising habit of ours is that Frenchmen of the better classes never take wine between meals, unless it is foreign or heavy wine, such as Vermouth, or Banyuls. The working classes, on the contrary, will drink wine at any time of day. A heavy coarse wine produced in the Charente, gives by distil- lation the famous brandy of the town of Cognac.
A great deal of "cognac" used to be consumed in the U. The great advantage of whiskey over brandy is that of beer over - 69 - DRINKS wine : beer and whiskey are almost industrial productions ; they depend for their quantity and quality on art more than nature. The same vineyard does not yield exactly the same wine two years running ; as to the quantity, it varies with rainfall, frosts, etc.
Comets are supposed to exert an excellent influence over wine ; but trade does not care to depend on meteors. The pressed-grapes of Burgundy give a brandy called "marc " or "eau-de-vie de marc".
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Roussillon East Pyrenees gives a strong sweet wine : " Banyuls" about 19 degrees. Beziers, Cette, and Narbonne, are three towns that live on the wine-trade of that region. The vine was first planted in France by the CTreeks, in B. The yearly production now reaches an average of 1. French wines, in 3, have yielded a profit of : " Vins ordinaires".
Cider and Perry " cidre"," poire " , are the drinks of Normandy, Brittany, and Maine. We produced 51,, cwt. Bottled cider reaches about 9 degrees. From cider is distilled a strong brandy called " calvados ". From Lorraine come good Ibeer and good wine. France, in , had 2, breweries, and malt-houses. The frugal French farmer drinks very cheap substitutes for wine and cider, obtained by pouring water over the pressed- apples or grapes.
It is most refreshing, and a good preventive against gout. Liqueurs are popular and innumerable ; they vary with each province, and most householders have some special recipes for the preparation of one of them at least. Their characteristic flavour depending essentially on the aroma of certain herbs or fruits, each must be prepared in its particular home. When the famous firm of the "Chartreuse" left the Alpine districts where grew the various plants essential to the liquor, it had to be removed to another mountainous site, Terragona, in N.
It was first used to some extent by the French in Algeria, during the conquest, in The bad water having seriously affected the health of the troops, an officer recommended the addition of a few drops, of absinthe in every glass of water; the compound proved refreshing, wholesome, and delicious. The use of absinthe was at first confined to colonial officers and men ; from them it gradually spread to the nation; adulteration and abuse did the rest. Strangers to our land are sometimes disappointed at the small- ness of our liqueur glasses They say that a certain English- man, on being offered some liqueur in one of those thimbles, - 71 — bUELS swaliowea it at one gulp, and then, thinking that the French custom must be to sample those things first, and have a real drink afterwards, merely said, with a smile of expectation : " Why, yes, I think I'll have some of that!
Also: L. At the same time we still share the old aristocratic prejudice against fisticuffs " Jeux de mains, jeux de vilains ". Boxing is to us no more than a form of sport, like swimming, or a trick of self-defence, like Jiu-jitsu, barred between gentlemen as the use of gases should be on the battle- field Hence the survival of duelling in France, in spite of its having been repressed ever since Saint Louis especially by Riche- lieu , and of its being illegal to-day. VU, Haute- Vienne P. Chanaud, F. Archives de la famiUe Gondinet, Grainerie Lansade, Archives paroissiales de Limoges, XIXe s.
Minutier de l'entreprise Rouchaud-Lamassiaude, 1 Mi Paul Biaise 4 Mi Idem 2 Mi Extraits du fonds de l'abbaye Saint-Martial 2 Mi Extraits du fonds de l'abbaye Saint-Martin de Limoges 2 Mi Fonds Mausset : ostensions 33 Fi. Agence centrale d'affichage 34 Fi. Fonds Jeanne Misme, 15 J. Fonds Haviland 23 J. Fonds d'Aigueperse, 52 J. Transports scolaires W. Limoges, , W. Service des domaines W. Cour d'appel, W. Association limousine de sauvegarde de l'enfance et de l'adolescence W.
Plan Alpes de Haute-Provence J. Hursch [link] Hautes-Alpes A. Paul [link] Alpes-Maritimes J. Caucanas [link] Aveyron J. Delmas [link] Cantal J. Say [link] Corse du Sud N. Pinzuti [link] Haute-Corse J. Nunez [link] Gard A. Venturini [link] Haute-Garonne B. Douillard [link] Gers P. Debofle [link] Gironde D. Valls [link] Landes J. Pons [link] Lot C. Le Nail [link] Tarn A.