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A recording made in by the concert soprano Ria Ginster was the first K. Ginster was in her prime and the voice has a healthy, even glow about it. She never had the required upper extension, and she therefore omits every note above high C the E's, D's, and C-sharp's are excised completely as well as the dip down to low B. I begrudge these types of modifications as it flattens the architectural design of the vocal line, but the truncated version is well sung by this Frankfurt-born singer.

As was so common in this era the allegro section is abbreviated by about half in order to fit the piece on one side of a 78 rpm disc. The ubiquitous concert soprano Maria Stader recorded K. The first record version was an HMV 78 rpm release from with Erismann conducting. In she remade the aria in stereo with Paumgartner for Deutches Grammophon. The top D on the final page, however, is emphatically let forth and clearly the top of her range. The two versions are nearly identical in general interpretation: the aria is effectively sung with a fruity, distinctive tone, but there are wavering pitch problems and some disturbing scoops and other distracting mannerisms with which to contend, more pronounced in the later version.

In my view, Stader doesn't live up to her considerable reputation as a supreme Mozart specialist. Ilse Hollweg was the first singer with a range equivalent to Aloysia's to record K. One version is on a rare Philips inch disc conducted by John Pritchard; the other version, made with Paumgartner and issued on Epic, is more common although it is still considered collectable since the other side of the LP contains arias sung by famed Canadian tenor Leopold Simoneau. For Epic, the engineers have Hollweg's voice placed behind the orchestra with far too much "shower stall" acoustics to really emerge as anything other than ghost-like.

What can be heard of her voice sounds pleasant enough. The harder-to-find Philips issue from the same timeframe is much preferred. She begins gently and sings through the piece with no fuss. Her sweet and easy upper register serves the music nicely, but the allegro section reveals how her small soubrette-level voice lacks heft. Incidentally, Hollweg also recorded the K. In her prime, Joan Sutherland had just the kind of big, agile, magnetic voice that might have done amazing things with Aloysia's arias, but unfortunately one K. The first version is a real rarity taken from a BBC broadcast in the bicentennial of Mozart's birth where she sings both K.

I don't believe there has been any commercial release the sound quality is extremely poor. Sutherland robs K. Even through the terribly opaque sound one recognizes the beginnings her heroic coloratura specialty: vitality, brilliance, power, accuracy. Perhaps because it was the beginning of her venture down this path she wasn't yet confident with high E's. There are also a few moments of awkwardness in phrasing. When Sutherland finally got around to recording K. The pronounced beat in the voice masks to some degree nearly every note, and the tone is shallow and strained.

Coloratura that once would have been inconspicuous is now labored, and typically droopy diction is even droopier. The upper register is forced -- the high D is attempted, but the high E's are wisely cut. It is a professional performance from a great artist, but the music is not sufficiently illuminated and there is no reason for anyone other than a Sutherland addict to seek it out.

The recording is conducted, of course, by Richard Bonynge. Rita Streich's voice sounds narrow in her recording from for DGG. Other small-voiced sopranos can modulate their tone production enough so that it swells dynamically within their own parameters, but Streich cannot or will not do so here. The high lying cantilena of this piece begs for floating, evocative vocalism that Streich doesn't deliver. The very top of her voice, where it should open and become more free, sounds especially constricted.

Jutta Vulpius , a little-known German dramatic coloratura, must have suffered a vocal crisis between the time she made her first recordings in the Queen of the Night and when she recorded K. As the Queen under von Zallinger she is uncommonly impressive: big-voiced, bold, incisive, and extremely accurate; in K. Vulpius issues pushed, curdled tones that are perpetually ill-tuned.

She is barely able to sustain the line of the melody -- certain seemingly insignificant notes suddenly pop out as shrill or bleaty, others are covered so heavily they become mushy oatmeal. Other arias in the compilation recorded the same year are okay Konstanze, Donna Anna, and the cruelly difficult K. One of the leading high sopranos in the s and 70s was American Reri Grist and her live performance from a Salzburg matinee is entrancing. Paumgartner, the acknowledged expert on the concert aria form and the person primarily responsible for its modern resurgence, is again at the helm.

Grist's tone is as light as hand-blown glass and reflects a spectrum of pastel colors. What presence Grist has! That it is a live performance likely accounts for some of this palpable communicative energy, but mistakes that would have been retaken in a studio must be allowed to stand; for example, Grist jumps one measure near the end. There are minor moments of fallible intonation and the high E's glare a bit, but it is a welcome vocal document by a beloved and under-recorded artist.

The eiderdown touches of Ingeborg Hallstein's artistry are well matched to K. She phrases in languorous, seemingly breathless arcs. Of all the songbirds whose names will been mentioned here, Hallstein's voice is perhaps the most truly bird-like, the upper extension actually suggesting the whistle of one of Audubon's most voluble subjects.

It will require some resourcefulness to hear them as both the original Eurodisc LP release and the reissue on CD are now out of print. Though Beverly Sills has long been one of my favorite singers, I cannot place her recording of K. It was captured in , right at the peak of her popularity and just before her vocal decline, yet here there seems to be no basic core to the tone here; mostly what I hear is a fluttering of vibrato perhaps the engineers are to blame as her live performances from this era show more tonal substance.

There is an acute artistic mind at work: she phrases adroitly with pianissimos in just the right places and makes smart choices as a singing actress, but the instrument itself ultimately sounds brittle. Even in the highest terrain, where Sills gained much of her justifiable fame, she sounds surprisingly tight the high E's are clutched unattractively.

She captures urgency in the allegro section but tends to overdrive it so that it becomes hard-edged. Sills programmed K. I have heard audio of her singing it with piano accompaniment in Chicago and New York in Both are fine performances, more free and transparent, even in their murky soundscape, than the studio performance. It is worth noting she leaves out the high E's in the Chicago recital. Lucino Visconti used K. A recording was made for the film soundtrack by soprano Emilia Ravaglia , conducted by Franco Mannino.

I have not been able to uncover it, although apparently it is available on a hard-to-find imported Japanese CD issue of the soundtrack. There is a very rare dub of an Italian radio broadcast from sometime in the s that features Ravaglia singing a very accurate K. The sound quality is a drawback, but her sweet, tangy soubrette approach works nicely and all the notes are firmly in place. Margaret Price 's approach to K. Price's tone is absolutely ambrosial. The seamless beauty of the voice is remarkable, all the way up to the three excellent high E's.

Her trill is a breathtaking decoration. As with many of her recordings, an overly imperial manner keeps one removed from involvement with anything beyond the resounding beauty of the voice. But what beauty it is! In a radio broadcast from Philadelphia, once only available on the pirate market but recently included on a compilation tribute CD devoted to Benita Valente , Eugene Ormandy leads her remarkably graceful, composed performance.

Valente was in her prime here, confirming her reputation as a Mozart singer of the highest caliber. A high lyric soprano with excellent flexibility, she lacked only the extra few notes above high D that would have allowed her to flourish in the standard coloratura repertoire. Although she cuts the high E's in K. Other notes above high C are excellent and sound easy enough. The final high D is a C-sharp a few sopranos do this, whether by choice or because they miss the high note trying to scale the huge leap over two octaves to get there, it's hard to tell.

Either note seems to work harmonically. Valente is an elegant singer who sounds remarkably like Sills here: warm, light, airy, and shimmery. Often in recordings her sound comes across to me as shrill and white, but she was in exceptionally good voice for this session and the engineers were able to capture her important overtones. Blegen is gentle and endearing in the adagio, phrasing with soft elasticity. When the tempo changes, her voice takes on an enamel sheen with crisp articulation of the coloratura.

The lack of appoggiaturas is disturbing, especially on the phrases that end "l'affanno mio" where the melodic lines simply fall flat. Her voice, as it is, is lovely, full, and balanced across the extensive range, but she is e-mailing it in: there is no delicacy on the long "a piangere" run to the top E's which are themselves wonderful, by the way ; there is no change of mood at "Ah, Conte" when the allegro section kicks in, and "oh Dio" is pale. The entire piece is a wash of lovely tone with no life. Edita Gruberova's first recording in under Leopold Hager begins a bit unsteadily but gains security as it progresses.

She invests the long, slow, high, rising phrases in the aria with wonderful hushed mystery, swelling and falling on each. The idea of the pianissimo effect up on the high E's she ties the last two together is a good one, but they are almost too thin and faint to really register effectively. The diction in the lower register is somewhat matronly, as if she has to purse her lips tightly in order to phonate low notes. Her phrasing is choppy at times and descending runs are a bit too stair-stepped with each note over-emphasized.

But what a difference a decade makes! Gruberova is magnificent in her live performance with Harnoncourt. A mysterious, poised opening almost transcends description; she subtly bends notes, inserts ornaments, and ties phrases together in insightful ways, creating bewitching musical and dramatic effects. The high E's are again sung in a pensive pianissimo, but here it is less detached from the rest of the vocal line.

Her lower register is much stronger and the allegro is flaming with energy. Great music fully realized by an artist at the peak of her powers, this is an unbeatable performance. Did I say unbeatable? I thank the higher powers that there is broadcast document of Elizabeth Parcells ' performance from Salzburg in now available on Youtube. This Met auditions finalist from Detroit also realizes all the potential of the aria in a moving performance that is unforgettable. I am always compelled to rewind the track and immediately hear it again always a sure sign of a definitive performance.

The adagio tempo is a bit too sprightly paced again by Hager but Parcells gives a compelling, nuanced characterization nonetheless. Her numerous embellishments seem totally spontaneous -- emotionally taut trills, turns and grace notes add punctuation, an interpolated flourish to a brilliant high D makes the listener's jaw drop in thrilling disbelief. Parcells' top extension is fabulous: the first high C-sharp is perfectly held and released so it just barely lingers in its own acoustic afterglow; the three E's are bright and full.

The piu allegro in the final coda jumps out of the gate and propels Parcells to a whirlwind finish. She sings the piece so well I intuitively sense that Aloysia's voice and artistry were very similar. I wish I had been in Salzburg that summer afternoon about 30 years ago. One of the most distinctive sound imprints of any coloratura soprano was that of Jeanette Scovotti. Creamy with an exciting, fast-spinning vibrato, it was never an easy or conventional voice. Her singing was often uneven, strained on high or under pressure, and at times almost seemed on the verge of crumbling right before one's ears.

But it never did. That's the rub and I think part of why she is such a fascinating singer. I never heard her live, but she had one of those voices that I suspect was not faithfully captured on record, the microphone tending to emphasize the flutter and magnify and distort characteristics that would have been welcome in a live venue. Scovotti had the heart and soul of a virtuosa, but couldn't deliver fully on her aspirations of vocal showmanship.

She sings it very well, with a solid technique and involvement that holds one's interest. She embellishes the return to the primary theme in the aria with panache and even adds an extra leap to a high C-sharp in the final coda. Yet there are some bumps and bruises along the way -- the high E's being the low point, a smeared bleat really.

I applaud her daring, but wish she had more voice to back it up. Sylvia Greenberg , an artist from Israel, also broadcast a stellar performance from a Salzburg concert in July of The conductor Gerhard Wimberger gives her plenty of freedom to mold the long sinewy phrases into platinum legato.

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There are breath-taking pianissimo effects on the recurring high "l'affanno" phrase, and the willowy, delicate ascensions to the upper register are glorious -- the three bell-like high E's quite perfect. Simple embellishments at musical junctures differentiate her rendition and add decorative interest. Greenberg dips non-chalantly into her chest register on the low lying final phrase and the trampoline spring up to the high D is easy and exciting.

Another Salzburg matinee ticket to envy. There has been no commercial recording of Anfossi's Il curioso indiscreto, and not one likely. Of course, Ms. Wirtz sings the Mozart insertion arias I wonder about the point of mounting the opera without them. I'm sorry to report she isn't up to the musical sophistication of K. She sounds more like a Blonde than a Konstanze, and the maturity and depth of feeling of the later Mozart lady better fits this aria than the amiable pluckishness of the former. The music suffers from her awkward phrasing, patchy pitch, and a lack of total control, especially on her high notes which more often than not run amok.

The celestial voice of Kathleen Battle is always welcome in Mozart's music, and her K. The opalescent quality to her middle and upper registers acts as an aural balm on weary ears.

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She is an impeccable musician and nearly every measure gets attention; the exceptions are in the danger zone above high C. She attacks these very top notes rather viciously the high E's are sounded in a straight tone that blares forth like a siren , but Battle's other artistic assets more than compensate. I have recently heard another Battle performance from the , a live broadcast with Zubin Mehta and the NY Philharmonic in concert. It is a stunning performance abundant with expressive details and mother-of-pearl tone. Unfortunately, it is not available commercially. Her recording of K.

Her ultra-light tones are so divinely spun over the aria that a spider reposing on its dewy web would be envious. The high E's peal forth with a generous, inviting ring, and I applaud her inclusion of a tasteful cadenza. The acoustics are understandably weak. The tempo may be the slowest of any renditions, but Rigacci keeps her wits about her. Canadian Tracey Dahl has a svelte, metallic voice capable of shining ascensions. In she recorded K. There is ample lyricism in the opening section but the top notes are attacked with a straight tone similar to Battle's that jars the moonlit atmosphere she has so carefully created.

There is rhythmic sloppiness, as well, and the allegro gets slightly out of her control. Nonetheless, it is a mostly winning account. American soprano Gwendolyn Bradley sang the piece in a broadcast from Auvers Oise in She has a dull earth-bound beginning and a lack of urgency in the coda. There is a prevalence of scooping that really annoys. The high E's are fine if a bit indelicate and the final pole-vault to a nearly screamed high D is slid terribly.

There is no reason to hunt down a copy of this one. Natalie Dessay's ultra-smooth rendering from is exemplary. She is plaintive and forlorn in the opening adagio, and makes a great moment of diminuendo on each repeat of the phrase "mami conanna il fato. As Gruberova did, Dessay ties over the last two E's; they are wonderful notes, but I prefer three distinct notes and alas, there here are only two here.

The allegro section simply isn't fast enough, so there is no urgency in the second half of the aria. However, I fault the conductor more than the singer and still consider this a valuable addition to the aria's discography. A rare CD issue of a program of Mozart and Beethoven concert arias shows German soprano Alexandra von der Weth to have vocal poise and a sense of drama.

She was only 26 years old when it was recorded so the voice is young and supple and it has substance, in the same way one might say that about the better-known June Anderson. The highest and lowest extremes are there, but just barely, perhaps more by luck than reliable technique.

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The young Korean soprano Young-ok Shin recorded K. Petersburg Symphony Orchestra guided by Alexander Dmitriev. It is a pretty, even, open, and expressive performance. There is a nice build on the long run to the high E's which, again, become only two , but there is no change in sensibility to launch into the allegro. Shin summons up a blaze of tone for the phrase "Ah stelle spietate, nemi che mi siete" that is surprising for a light soprano.

She commits a sin by breathing before the leap to the high D especially as it occurs in the middle of the word "parlate". Incidentally, Shin is the only soprano I've heard sing K. She was in sublime voice; I was in heaven. We have two recordings of K. The first in was a studio recording with Kenneth Montgomery, the second in was live at Carnegie Hall with Bonynge conducting the Orchestra of St.

They are quite similar, the tone in the live recording being slightly plumier and the diction more slurred. Both versions exhibit a creamy, trance-like opening with smooth and even tone emission and a languid emotional involvement. In most modern editions this is made into a part for A clarinets; the NMA keeps the notation for the B clarinet.

There is evidence that some of the clarinet writing was intended for basset clarinet due to its low range. Brass: 2 horns, 2 trumpets. Percussion : 2 timpani — an additional military drum is used on stage. Strings: first violins, second violins, violoncellos , double basses. Basso continuo in secco recitatives of harpsichord and violoncello. Elements from Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew are present. Furthermore, it incorporates elements of the myth of Procris. Don Alfonso expresses skepticism and claims, he lays a wager with the two officers, claiming he can prove in a day's time that those two, like all women, are fickle.

The wager is accepted: the two officers will pretend to have been called off to war. The scene shifts to the two women. Alfonso arrives to announce the bad news: the officers have been called off to war.

Vorrei spiegarvi, oh Dio, K by W.A. Mozart - sheet music on MusicaNeo

Ferrando and Guglielmo arrive and bid farewell; as the boat with the men sails off to sea and the sisters wish them safe travel. Alfonso, left alone, gloatingly predicts that the women. Il curioso indiscreto Il curioso indiscreto, is an opera in three acts composed by Pasquale Anfossi.

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The libretto is based on an episode from the 17th-century Spanish novel Don Quixote ; the librettist is not known for sure but is thought to be either Giovanni Bertati or Giuseppe Petrosellini. It is unclear. However, the edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians notes that could have been either Bertati or Giuseppe Petrosellini; the premiere of Il curioso indiscreto took place during the Carnival season of at Rome's Teatro delle Dame, where Anfossi's La vera costanza had premiered the previous year.

Since women were not allowed to perform on stage in the Papal States at that time, the opera premiered with an all-male cast. The stage design was by Gabriele Montarenzi with costumes by Vincenzo D'Amora; the performance included two untitled ballets choreographed by Giacomo Romolo. The opera proved popular and was subsequently performed in many Italian and European cities, including Vienna in For the Vienna performance, Mozart added two of his own arias, "Vorrei spiegarvi, oh Dio!

Il curioso indiscreto was revived in with a performance at the Mozarteum in Salzburg which included the two Mozart arias.

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Marchese Calandrano is afflicted with insatiable curiosity, he is betrothed to the beautiful Clorinda but wonders what she would do if another man paid court to her. He enlists the young Count Ripaverde, in love with Calandrano's niece Emilia, to test Clorinda's fidelity; this proves to be Calandrino's downfall, as Clorinda fall in love.

Calandrino's friend, Aurelio consoles Emilia and they too fall in love, as do Prospero. Anfossi's operas La vera costanza and L'avaro Complete list of Anfossi's operas.

W.A. Mozart - Aria "Vorrei spiegarvi, oh Dio!" K. 418

Aria In music, an aria is a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without instrumental or orchestral accompaniment part of a larger work. The typical context for arias is opera, but vocal arias feature in oratorios and cantatas, sharing features of the operatic arias of their periods; the term was used to refer to any expressive melody but not always, performed by a singer. By the end of the 16th century, the term'aria' refers to an instrumental form. By the early 16th century it was in common use as meaning a simple setting of strophic poetry. In the context of staged works and concert works, arias evolved from simple melodies into structured forms.

In such works, the sung and structured aria became differentiated from the more speech-like recitative — broadly, the latter tended to carry the story-line, the former carried more emotional freight and became an opportunity for singers to display their vocal talent. The aria evolved in one of two forms. Binary form arias were in two sections. In the da capo aria the'B' episode would be in a different key — the dominant or relative major key. Other variants of these forms are found in the French operas of the late 17th century such as those of Jean-Baptiste Lully which dominated the period of the French baroque.

In the Italian school of composers of the late 17th and early 18th century, the da capo form of aria came to be associated with the ritornello , a recurring instrumental episode, interspersed with the elements of the aria and provided, in early operas, the opportunity for dancing or entries of characters; this version of aria form with ritornelli became a dominant feature of European opera throughout the 18th century.

It is thought by some writers to be the origin of the instrumental forms of concerto and sonata form; the ritornelli became essential to the structure of the aria — "while the words determine the character of a melody the ritornello instruments decided in what terms it shall be presented.

By the early 18th century, composers such as Alessandro Scarlatti had established the aria form, its da capo version with ritornelli, as the key element of opera seria. The regularity of its conventional features enabled deviations from the normal to be exploited with telling effect. Types of operatic aria became known by a variety of terms according to their character — e.

Robinson describes the standard aria in opera seria in the period to as follows: The first section began with an orchestral ritornello after which the singer entered and sang the words of the first stanza in their entirety. By the end of this first vocal paragraph the music, if it were in a major key as it was, had modulated to the dominant. The orchestra played a second ritornello shorter than the first. The singer sang the same words through a second time; the music of this second paragraph was slightly more elaborate than that of the first.

There were more repeats of words and more florid vocalisations ; the key worked its way back to the tonic for the final vocal cadence after which the orchestra rounded the section off with a final ritornello. The nature and allocation of the arias to the different roles in opera seria was formalized. According to the playwright and librettist Carlo Goldoni , in his autobiography, The three principal personages of the drama ought to sing five arias each; the second actress and the second soprano can only have three, the inferior characters must be satisfied with a single aria each, or two at the most.

The author of the words must take care, he must distribute with the same precaution the bravura arias, the arias of action, the inferior arias, the minuets and rondeaus. He must, above all things, avoid giving impassioned arias, bravura arias, or rondeaus, to inferior characters. By contrast, arias in opera buffa were specific in character to the nature of the character being portrayed.

By in the century it was clear that these formats were becoming fossilized. Christoph Willibald Gluck thought that both opera buffa and opera seria had strayed too far from what opera should be, seemed unnatural; the jokes of opera buffa were. Oboe Oboes belong to the classification of double reed woodwind instruments. Oboes are made of wood, but there are oboes made of synthetic materials; the most common oboe plays in the soprano range.

A soprano oboe measures 65 cm long, with metal keys, a conical bore and a flared bell. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed at a sufficient air pressure, causing it to vibrate with the air column; the distinctive tone is versatile and has been described as "bright". When the word oboe is used alone, it is taken to mean the treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family, such as the bass oboe, the cor anglais, or oboe d'amore A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist.

Today, the oboe is used in concert bands, chamber music, film music, some genres of folk music, as a solo instrument, heard in jazz , rock and popular music. In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the treble oboe is sometimes referred to as having a clear and penetrating voice; the Sprightly Companion, an instruction book published by Henry Playford in , describes the oboe as "Majestical and Stately, not much Inferior to the Trumpet. In the play Angels in America the sound is described as like "that of a duck if the duck were a songbird ". The rich timbre is derived from its conical bore; as a result, oboes are easier to hear over other instruments in large ensembles due to its penetrating sound.

Orchestras tune to a concert A played by the first oboe. According to the League of American Orchestras , this is done because the pitch is secure and its penetrating sound makes it ideal for tuning; the pitch of the oboe is affected by the way. The reed has a significant effect on the sound. Variations in cane and other construction materials, the age of the reed, differences in scrape and length all affect the pitch. German and French reeds , for instance, differ in many ways. Weather conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the pitch.

Skilled oboists adjust their embouchure to compensate for these factors. Subtle manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the oboist to express timbre and dynamics. Most professional oboists make their reeds to suit their individual needs. By making their reeds, oboists can control factors such as tone color and responsiveness. Novice oboists may begin with a Fibrecane reed, made of a synthetic material. Commercially available cane reeds are available in several degrees of hardness ; these reeds, like clarinet and bassoon reeds, are made from Arundo donax.

As oboists gain more experience, they may start making their own reeds after the model of their teacher or buying handmade reeds and using special tools including gougers, pre-gougers, guillotines and other tools to make the reed to their liking. According to the late John Mack , former principal oboist of the Cleveland Orchestra , an oboe student must fill a laundry basket with finished reeds in order to master the art.

Orchestral musicians sometimes do this, co-principals in particular earn a bit on the side in this way Many professional musicians import their reed cane Oboes require thicknesses of about 10 millimeters. The reed is considered the part of oboe playing that makes it so difficult because slight variations in temperature, altitude and climate will change a working reed into an unplayable collection of cane.

In English, prior to , the standard instrument was called a "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy"; the spelling of oboe was adopted into English c. The regular oboe first appeared in the midth century. This name was used for its predecessor, the shawm , from which the basic form of the hautbois was derived. Major differences between the two instruments include the division of the hautbois into three sections, or joints, the elimination of the pirouette , the wooden ledge below the reed which allowed players to rest their lips; the exact date and place of origin of the hautbois are obscure, as are the individuals who were responsible.

Circumstantial evidence, such as the statement by the flautist composer Michel de la Barre in his Memoire, points to members of the Philidor and Hotteterre families; the instrument may in fact have had multiple inventors. The hautbois spread throughout Europe , including Great Britain , where it was called "hautboy", "hoboy", "hautboit", "howboye", similar variants of the French name, it was the.

A longer and more formal title for the edition is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Still being published are the Critical Reports — technical commentaries in German. One of the editorial directors, Wolfgang Rehm , writes that "The NMA aims to be a historical-critical edition and to offer as such the latest state of philological-musicological procedure as well as practical knowledge of Mozart's creative production.

At the same time, the NMA is not free of problems, although to most observers these do not detract from the scholarly achievement that this edition represents. In editing The Marriage of Figaro for the NMA, which appeared in , Ludwig Finscher was only able to access the first two acts of the autograph score. In editing the Piano Concerto No. Along similar lines, Landon comments that "recently discovered ms.

Neumann finds some of the ornamentation regarding vocal cadenzas, while some of it is in his view misjudged. NY: Schirmer Books , NY: Schirmer Books, Wolfgang Rehm. See pp. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Opera portal. Revision History. Reduction music. Related Images. YouTube Videos.

Mozart c. Anonymous portrait of the child Mozart, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni ; painted in on commission from Leopold Mozart. Performers from the Atlanta Opera sing the finale of Lucia di Lammermoor. The opera orchestra is visible in the lowered area in front of the stage.

La Scala of Milan. Claudio Monteverdi.

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The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble. Appearing in its modern form in the 19th century, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral, concert band, and chamber music literature. Dulcians and rackett s, from the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius. Heckel system bassoon from The French horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell.

A natural horn has no valves, but can be tuned to a different key by inserting different tubing, as during a rest period. A horn section in a military concert band. Oboes are usually made of wood, but there are also oboes made of synthetic materials.

The most common oboe plays in the treble or soprano range. Oboist Albrecht Mayer preparing reeds for use. Most oboists scrape their own reeds to achieve the desired tone and response. The members of the oboe family from top: heckelphone , bass oboe , cor anglais , oboe d'amore , regular oboe, and piccolo oboe. Opera in the Heights ensemble, The farewell aria of Sultan Bazajet in Handel 's opera Tamerlano. Note the da capo instruction.

First edition, London, Gluck in a portrait by Joseph Duplessis. A folio from Salve regina by Anfossi, written in his own hand. Antonio Salieri was an Italian classical composer, conductor, and teacher.